Proper growth and functioning of body we need nutrients in proper quantity. This unit aims the knowledge about the nutrients and the food items which they present in the nutrients and make table of this understand. The idea of balanced diet and make food charts and find the causes of deficiency diseases and give proper solving of these desease and proper change of food habits are aimed in this chapter.

Important points

+ Carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals are the main nutrients in the food.

+ Proteins are needed for the growth and body building.

+ Vitamins and minerals are nutrient factors that are inevitable for proper health and smooth functioning of physiological activities.

+ Non-nutrient factors like water and fibre are also to be included in the diet besides nutrient factors.

+ Food that contains all nutrients in required quantities is termed as balanced diet.

+ Food habits and changes causes different types of health problems.

* Now what is the case in your house?

Idiyappam, Dosa, Puttu, Iddli, Uppuma, Chapathi, Rice, Leaf curries, Fish curry, Meat etc.

* Catagorize food items in to those you like and those you don’t like.

Like : Noodles, fried rice, chicken fry, icecream chocolate

Don’t like : Rice, sambar, avial, elephantyam, colocasta, tapioca.

* Do you think that we need to eat only food items we like?

 No, we need to eat food items with all nutrients.

In our food

* We feel tired and weak if we don’t have food even once. Why do we have food?

 To acquire immunity.

To earn required amount of energy that body needs.

Proper functioning of metabolic activities.

* What is the problem if we take only one type of food?

Different nutrients are used the body w different way and the functioning of each is different. If we take only one type of food we get only one type of nutrient and it may cause many problems.

* Which nutrients are available from food? Examine the illustration and complete the table.

Food items Nutrients
Rice Carbohydrates
Fish Proteins
Oil fat
Fruits and vegetables mineral salts, vitamins

* What is the need of including carbohydrates in our diet? Which food items contain carbohydrate in plenty?

1. Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Its chief function is to provide energy for physiological activities. Starch, sugar, glucose and cellulose are different forms of carbohydrate. Carbohydrate is present in plenty in cereals and tubersin the form of starch.

* What is the need of including carbohydrates in our diet? Which food items contain carbohydrate in plenty?

 Its chief function is to provide energy for physiological activities. So carbohydrate must include in our diet.

Carbohydrate is present in plenty in cereals and tubers.

 The energy we need to do work comes mainly from carbohydrate. Do we perform the activities that are shown in the picture? What are the other activities that we engage ourselves in? Don’t we need a lot of energy to do all these activities?

No, we don’t perform only the activities that are shown in the picture.                               Breathing, do exercise, riding a bicycle, walking, sleeping, writing, studying. We need a lot of energy to do all these activities.

Which among the following food items will you include in your diet if you avoid rice for a day. Why?

Egg, Banana, Tapioca, Milk

Tapioca is the food item, include in diet if avoid rice for a day.

Tapioca is rich in carbohydrate.

Have you now understood how to detect the presence of starch in food items? Test egg banana, tapioca and milk in the same way.

 What are your findings.

Take Egg, banana, tapioca and milk. Add two drops of iodine solution.

A blue colour is formed in tapioca.

How can we detect the presence of starch in food?

The presence of starch in food may detect by experiment /

 Detecting starch

 Materials required : test tube, rice gruel (kanjivellam), diluted iodine solution.

Procedure : Take some rice gruel in a test tube. Add 2 – 3 drops of iodine solution t it. Observe the colour.

Observation : A deep blue colour is formed in rice gruel.

lodine test

A deep blue colour is formed when starch reacts with iodine solution.

My Inference

Carbohydrate is present in plenty in cereals and tubers in the form of starch. But in fruits, milk and egg the quantity of starch is less. Starch gives the energy required for the physiological activities. So we must include carbohydrate in our diet.

Conduct this experiment on more food items and record the inferences in your science diary

Food items Colour formed on adding iodine Inference
• Ash gourd No colour change Absence of starch
• Wheat flour White colour changes to deep blue colour. Presence of starch.
• Potato Colour changes to deep blue Presence of starch.
•Sugar No colour change. Absence of starch.
• Egg boiled No colour change. Absence of starch.

2. Protein

Look at these pictures.

What is your observation about the growth of these two children?

 What may be the reason for this difference?

Stunted growth; weight loss, aged face etc. are seen in first child.

The second child is healthy.

Due to nutrient deficiency the first child like this. The food we eat gives energy and used to growth and building of body. Protein is the main nutrient used for this. Protein gives energy. Build the body parts and repair the body parts are the main functions of protein. Protein is essential for the formation of cells, hair, digestive juice etc. in the body. They are the essential constituents of protoplasm and they helps in the production of enzymes hormones etc. Protein produces energy in the absence of carbohydrates. Proteins are known as body builders

Behind growth

Protein is a major food constituent that helps the development and growth of the body. Protein is essential for the formation of cells, hair, digestive juice, etc., in the body. Protein produces energy in the absence of carbohydrates. Protein contains hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. In accordance with the body weight one should obtain protein trom diet at the rate of 1 gram per kilogram.

* Do you know your body weight?

How many gram of protein do you need a day?

In accordance with the body weight, one should obtain protein from diet at the rate of 1 gram per kilogram.

Deficiency of protein leads to retardation of growth


Kwashiorkar is a disease caused by the deficiency of protein. The body of the affected will be weak and with a protruded belly.

Deficiency diseases of proteins

Marasmus and Kwashiorkar are the disease caused by the deficiency of protein.

Growth retardation weight loss, aged face, muscle loss etc. are the symptoms of marasmus.

The body of the person affected Kwashiorkar will be weak and with a protruded belly. This is by a liquid is filled the body tissues. Stunted growth, swelling in feet and ankle, yellowish face, protruded belly wrinkled and scars on skin etc. are the symptoms of Kwashiorker.

From which food items do we get plenty of Protein.

 Rice cashew nut, sardine, mutton, green gram, ground nut.

Examine the quantity of protein contained in different food items.

Food item(100 g) Protein (g)
Rice 6.8
Wheat 11.8
Cashew nut 21.2
Sardine 19.6
Duck 21.6
Duck’s egg 13.5
Hen’s egg 10.3
Mutton 21.4
Cow’s milk 3.2
Green gram 24.2
Ground nut 17.1

Do you get the required amount of protein from your daily diet.

Yes, got the required amount of protein from daily diet.

 What is the advantage of supplying green gram as part of the midday meal In schools?

Green gram contain more protein it gives health.

We can detect the presence of protein in a few food items by the following experiment?

Aim: To detect the presence of protein.

Materials required: Copper sulphate, water, sodium hydroxide, dropper, beaker, egg white, test tube. Procedure : Add water to egg white and stir it well take it up to a quarter of a test tube. Add 8 – 10 drops of 1% concentrated sodium hydroxide to it. Stir it and add 2 drops of 1% concentrated copper sulphate solution to it. The appearence of violet colour indicates the presence of protein.

Observation : Violet colour appears.

Inference : Presence of protein detected.

Add 10 ml of water to egg white and Stir. It well take 1 ml of this and add 1 ml of 10%

NaOh mixed in to this mxiture add 1 drop of 1% Cuso, Light violet colour appears. It is used to detect the presence of protein and this is known as Biurate. Use another food items instead of egg white. If violet colour appears presence of protein detected.

3. Fat

Here are the pictures of some food items we use every day? We do not eat any of these directly. Then how do they get in to our body?

Fat got our body from these food items.

* Which type of food, enables the body to get oil and ghee?

Food items fried in ghee and oil such as poori, Banana fry, chicken fry, banana chips

If there is no fat

Fat is one of the food constituents required by our body in small quantities. Meat fish, milk, milk products egg, ditferent kinds of peas etc.. contain fat. Different kinds of oils and ghee are fats extracted from many Food  items. Fat also provides energy like carbohydrates Certain vitamins dissolve only in lat. To get these vitamins, it is essential to include fat in our diet.

Listen to Reefa’s doubt. What is your opinion about it? How can we detect the presence of fat in food items?

Do this activity

Pour a few drops of oil on a white paper. Let it dry in the sun and observe. Do you see any difference on the area where oil is applied.

Now scrub lady’s finger to a paper and examine.

* Don’t you like fried food items very

Examine different food items in this way and write your inferences in the Science Diary

Paper is only ever after it is dried.

Defect fat

Rub any food item on a paper. If the paper is oily even after it is dried we may conclude that the food contain fat.

If in excess…

Lab Report

Test Value Normal
Blood sugar 80 70 – 110 mg/dl
Cholesterol 230 Up to 200 mg/dl

Look at the lab report. What is the normal level of cholesterol?

 200 mg/dl is the normal level of cholesterol.

Fat and cholesterol

Cholesterol is one form of fat. Besides obtaining from food, the body also produces cholesterol. If the level of cholesterol becomes high, it adheres to the inner walls of the blood vessels and prevents the flow of blood. This leads to cardiac diseases. Hence taking excessive fatty food is not advisable.

Don’t you like fried items very much? What will be the difference in the level of cholesterol if such food is taken in excess?  

Energy consumption from fat is not exceeded 20% per day. If we take fried food items in excess amount the amount of fat with increase and can cause health problems.

What are the changes to be adopted in your diet to control the level of cholesterol? Discuss and write them in your Science Diary.

• Reduce the use of meat and fish.

• Use more vegetables in daily diet.

• Reduce the use of fat contained spices

.• Use more fruits.

4. Vitamins

Examine a study report related to our food habit.

* Name the vegetables and fruits that you like a day in what quantities do your take them? Tabulate it in your Science diary.

 From a Study Report

The Indian Medical Research Council rec ommends that an adult Indian should con sume 295 g of vegetables per day. But in in dia, an average of only 135 g vegetable is in cluded in diet generally. In Kerala, an individual consumes an average of 50 g vegetables per day

Pea, amaranthus, moringa leaf, cabbage, banana, grapes, orange etc. are taken 50 gm vegetables are taken daily.

* What is the significance of having fruits and vegetables?  

Vitamins are helps in the smotth functioning of physiological activities and helps in repairing of body parts and health of bone and teeth.

It helps in growth and resistance of the body. They are required only in small quantities. Vitamin D is synthesized in the body from Sunlight Bran of cereals, fruits, vegetables etc are the saurces of vitamin B.

Traditional food and fast food

 Nutritional food is required for the proper growth and health of the body. Our traditional food meets this need. People greatly depend on fast food. In this busy world the popularity of fast food is increasing. The advantage of fast food is that the time spent on cooking can be saved. Due to its regular use some health problems and economic problems will occur. Artificial substances are used to increase the taste and smell of fast food items. For example, tartrazin is used to add yellow colour to ladu and chips. Sometimes, the food we eat leads to certain diseases. Over eating of food containing fat leads to diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, diseases of blood circulatory system. etc. Excess use of salt causes heart diseases and increase blood pressure. Proper diet prevents the diseases! caused by fast food. Important matter is not how much we eat but what we eat. The food we eat must contain all the nutrients needed for various activities of the body. Also we must include food containing cellulose in our diet Taking food at irregular times is a common sight found among those residing in cities. It has became a habit among the people especially among the youngsters to avoid traditonal noon meals and supper. Such people depends on light refreshments. Most of the items in the light refreshments are those fried in oils. The quantity of proteins will be very low in such things. A good noon meal provides all the nutrients needed one day. So these who depend on light food to suppress their hunger should practise the habit of taking noon meals and supper

There are many kinds of vitamins. Examine the illustration.

* What are the health hazards caused by the deficiency of vitamin A?

Health of eye, skin, hair etc. are affect.
* What are the food items to be included in the diet of a person suffering
from ill health of the gums?

Fruits, gooseberry, moringa leaves, papaya etc. are included in the diet.
* What happens if the intake of fat in the food is very low?

Vitamin A, D, E, K are only soluble in fat. So little fat is needed for the body. If no fat is available these vitamins are not get and cause deficiency diseases.
* What are the vitamins that dissolve in water?

vitamin B complex, Vitamin C
* Infants who have not started taking food items are exposed to mild
sunlight for a short time. Why

Vitamin D is synthesized in the body from sunlight. To acquire Vitamin D, infants are exposed to mild sunlight for a short time.

If not kept covered

When fruits and vegetables are cooked  the vitamin C in them dissolves in steam. It goes out of the vessel With the steam. So it is better to cover the vessel while cooking them.

Have you paid attention to the words of this house wife? Do you think it is advisable to wash vegetables after chopping them? Why?

 Wash the vegetables before chopping becuase are dissolves in water. Washing the vegetables after chopping vitamins goes out.

4. Minerals

How is anaemia cured by taking leafy vegetables? Go through the following information

*The deficiency of which element causes anaemia in a child?

Deficiency of iron cause anaemia.
*What are the health hazards caused by the lack of leafy vegetables in
the diet?

Iron is needed for the synthesis of naemoglobin in blood. Calcium and phosphorous are needed for the formation of bones and teeth, and the functioning of muscles and nerves. Deficiency of these causes anaemia, and the functioning of bones and nerves retarded.

*Haven’t you now understood the importance of minerals even though they are required in small quantities? Prepare notes and record them in your science

More than 50 elements are seen in our body. They needed for the growth, physiological activities, for the repairing of body etc.

Calcium, Phophorous, Magnesium, Sodium. iron, Manganese, Copper, lodine etc.

About 24 types of minerals are required the body. Iron is required for he synthesis of haurnoglobin in blood, leafy vegetables are rich in iron. Anaemia is cause by the deficiency of iron.

For the formation of bones and teeth calcium and phosphorous are required. Through drinking water and food items Body gets iodine

Goitre is the disease caused by the deficiency of iodine. Through food items which contain common salt we get sodium

Increasing the level of sodium cause high pressure and many diseases.

• For the proper functioning of body.

• For the formation and growth of bones and teeth.

• Functioning of ezymes make more easy.

• Production of hormones.

• Help the functioning of muscles and nerves. Minerals are needed for these activities.

Nutrient Deficiency Diseases

The deficiency of nutrients causes retardation of growth and many other diseases. Such diseases are called nutrient deficiency diseases.

Didn’t you earlier learn about certain diseases caused by the deficiency of protein? Take note of a few diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamins and minerals.

Analyse the table and write your inferences in the science diary.

For the proper functioning of the body we need vitamin A, B, C, D and minerals like iron and lodine. Due to the deficiency of these night blindness, mouth sores, scurvy, rickets, anaemia, goitre etc can cause.

Non – nutrient factors

Non-nutrient factors like water and fibre are also to be included in the diet besides nutrient factors. Examine their importance.


Water constitutes two-third of our body weight; 85% of brain, 90% of blood and 25% of bones. Water acts as the medium for many physiological activities including digestion. About 2.5 litres of water is lost from our body through urine, sweat etc. So a large quantity of pure water has to be drunk.


Fibres are a kind of carbohydrate which are available in vegetarian food and cannot be digested by the body. They are mainly composed of cellulose. Though they provide no nutrients to the body, they help in the movement of excretory materials in the large intestine. Cereals containing bran, leafy vegetables, vegetables, stem and bud of the plantain, etc., are very rich sources of fibre.

* How much water do you drink everyday?

8 glass
* What are the food items that provide water to your body?

From fruits and vegetables
* What are the problems caused by the excessive intake of food made of maida flour which contains very little fibre.

 Excessive in take of the food made of maida flour which contains very little fibre affect the digestion.

It also affect the movement of excretory material in the large intestine and cause health problems.

While selecting food

Did you notice the conversation? Do you get all the nutrients by eating only the food you like? what is your opinion?

These children do not get sufficient nutrients. Only some types of food eaten we get. Some nutrients in it and get this nutrients in excess amount if may lead to some diseases. It we eat pickle we get more oil, eat parippu curry we get more protein, we eat unakameen and pappadam. We got excess amount of salt end oil. It may lead to pressure, cholesterol.

Taking excess amount of Rice taken excess amount of carbohydrate got so it increase the size and leads to obesity.

 So this type of false habit must be changed.

Notice the illustration given below. Do you think that we have to take all types of food in equal quantity? No, we don’t take all types of food in equal quantity

No ,we don’t take all types of food in equal quantity.

Balanced diet

Food that contains all nutrients in required quantities is termed as balanced diet.

What are the things to be considered while preparing a routine menu chart?

While prepring a routine menu chart we considered the quantity of all nutrients body needed. Examine the food charts prepared by three students.

* whose food chart is more balanced? Why?

Anil’s food chart is more balanced. It contain almost all nutrients.

* Can you prepare diverse, balanced food charts?Make use of the following tables and the matters discussed so far for data collection.

Food Chart

Day Morning Noon Night
Monday Idli,Sambar,Milk Rice,Peas curry,Amaranthus, fish Banana,Chappathi,Vegetable Kuruma
Tuesday Chappathi,egg curry,Milk Rice,Parippu curry,ghee, avail Chappathi,Potato curry
Wednesday Idli ,Chutney,milk Rice,Curd,Pappadam Chappathi Vegetable Kuruma, banana
Thursday Dosa, Chutney,Milk Rice, Chicken curry,Sambar Chappathi,egg curry
Friday Puttu, bengal gram curry Rice, Fish,Cabbage Chappathi,Potato curry
Saturday Idiyappam,greenpeas curry Rice,Sambar,Bitter gourd Chappathi,Vegetable Kuruma
Sunday Uppuma,banana, milk Rice, meat,Parippu curry Chappathi,Potato curry

* Is avial included in the food chart you include

Yes avial included in the food chart.

* What all nutrients do you get when Avial is included in your food?

Vitamins, protein, mineral etc. are got from avial.

You might have understood the nutrients present in various food materials. Is it necessary to change your food habit in order to get all the nutrients in required quantity?

We get sufficient energy and nutrients from food which may help in the growth and life processes. To attain proper health they may change their food habits. The Indian medical Research Council recommends that an adult Indian should consume 295 of vegetables per day. But in India an average of only 135 g vegetables is included in diet generally. In Kerala, an individual consumes an average of 50 g vegetables per day if tubers excluded from this it is only 23 g.

To resist against diseases like diabetis, cancer we must increase the use of vegetables. Leafy vegetables, egg, milk products, fish, fruits etc. are included in the diet.

Significant learning outcomes

The learner can

*recognize and tabulate nutritious food and the nutrients in them.

* recognize the concept of balanced diet and prepare food charts.

* find out causes of deficiency diseases and suggest remedies.

 * bring about required changes in the food habit.

Let us assess

1. Arrange the nutrients given below based on he quantity in which they are required (from higher amount to lower).(Protein, Minerals, Carbohydrate, Fat.)

2. Analyse the two statements. What is your inference?

: Minerals and vitamins are needed only in small quantity. But the deficiency of these may cause many diseases and retarding growth. We get vitamins and minerals in required quantities only by having plenty of fruits and vegetables.

3. Complete the illustration adding more information.

4. Prepare a questionnaire to conduct an interview with a doctor to get more information about deficiency diseases.

1. What is nutritional deficiency diseases?

2. What are the symptoms of nutritional deficiency diseases?

3. What are the cuases?

4. What is the method to solve it?

5. Is this disease genetic?

 6. Give a proper chart containing all nutritions?

Extended Activities

1. The approximate height and weight required, in relation to the age is indicated in the table. Find out your height and weight. Compare it with the information given in the table.

2. Collect recipes of various food items and prepare a special booklet.


Rawa upma


¾ Cup Rava (Sooji/Semolina)

1/4 teaspoon Mustard seeds

1 teaspoon Chana Dal (option)

 1 teaspoon Urad dal (optional)

1 pinch Asafoetida

1-2 springs curry leaves

1 medium onion, finely chopped

1/2teaspoon grated ginger

2 green chilli, chopped

3 tables spoons, carrot, finely chopped

 2 tablespoons fresh or frozen Green Peas.

3 tables poons Capsicum, finely chopped

5-6 fried cashew nuts (optional)

 2 tablespoons finely chopped coriander leaves

1 teaspoon Lemon Juice

salt to taste

1 tablespoon Ghee

2 tablespoon Cooking oil

1½ cups water.


Heat 1 tablespoon ghee in a kadai or heavy based pan. Add rava in it. Roast it on low flame until it turns fight brown, approx 4. 5 minuts. Keep strring continuously. when done, transfer to a plate.

Heat 2 tablespoon oil in same kadai over medium flame. Add mustard seeds. When they begin to sputter, add chana dal, uraddal asafoetida and curry leaves. Cook until dal turn light brown.

Add chopped onion, grated ginger and chopped green chillies and saute for 1 – 2 minutes until onion becomes translucent.

Add chopped carrot, green peas, chopped capsicum, chopped tomatoes and salt. Mix well and saute from 2-3 minutes.

Add water and bring the mixture to boil it will take around 2 – 3 minutes

Add roasted rawa and lemon juice, mix well. Stir continuously for 1-2 minutes to avoid lumps. Cover it with a lid and cook on low flame until mixture turns thick, it will take around 3 – 4 minutes. Stirr in between regular intervals. 

Turn off heat and remove the 1rd let it settle for 10 minutes before serving. Add fried cashew nuts and coriander leaves, mix well  and transfer rawa upma to a serving plate. 

Raggi Puttu

Place a bowl in a flame and add water. Add  salt and allow the water to boil. And allow the water to cool a little so that the water becomes  warm and able to handle with out hand. Take a mixing bowl, add raggi flour. Sprinkle water little by little and crumble the raggi flour. The consistancy should be such that if you hold the ragi flour in your palm, you should be able to make a ball, and if you drop it, the flour should again crumble.

Take a puttu malar, fill the base of the maker dal, with water till half of its capacity and keep it in flame. Take the cylinderical portion of the puttu maker add one first full of grated coconut and top it with 2 first full of raggi flour. Again add 1 first full of greated coconut and again rept close the cyclinder with lid.

Steam cook the puttu for about 10 minutes.

3. Prepare suggestions to make the mid day meal at school more balanced and submit it to your Headmaster.

1. Give egg and milk regularly.

2. Include green gram and bengal gram.

3. Give left vegetables twice in a weak.

 4. Give fruits regularly.

5. Include avial and sambar.

More Questions and Answers

1. Choose the correct answers from below options.

Proteins, Vitamin K, Moringa leaf, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, wheat, Kwashiorker, Cellulose, Richkets, Beri Beri, Pellagro, Calciterol, food

1. We get energy from …….


2. An example of a carbohydrate food is ……


3. …… are body builders.


4. Deficiency of proteins cause a disease called


 5. Vitamin which is lost on heating.

Vitamin C

6. Deficiency of vitamin A causes a disease called ……

 Night blindness

 7. Example of fat soouble vitamin…….

Vitamin D

8. Vitamin helps in the clothing of blood……..

Vitamin K

9. Carbohydrate which insoluble in water ……


10. ……. is the disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin D


11. ……… is the disease caused by deficiency of vitamin B

 Beri Beri

12. ……. is the deficiency disease of vitamin B, Pellagra.


13. Another name of vitamin D is


14. Vitamin C deficient person must take……..

Moringa leaf

II. Find the odd one

1. Rice, wheat, tubers, ghee

ghee – Nutrient present in others is carbohydrate nutrient presentin ghee is fat.

2. Egg, meat, milk, wheat

Others are helps in the growth of the body wheat is energy giving food.

3. Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E

Vitamin C – It is soluble in water others are soluble in fat

4. Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Sodium

Iron – Others are major elements. Iron is a trace element.

5. Calcium carbide, Sodium chloride, Sodium benzoate, Sodium bicarbonate

 Sodium chloride  Others are artificial preservatives. Sodium chloride is a natural preservative

III. Fill in the blanks

1. Vitamin A : Amaranthus: Vitamin C


2. Carbohydrate : Energy Protein.


3. Vitamin A: Night blindness : Vitamin D:


 IV. Answer the following:

1. Which nutrient helps the growth of the body? Which are the food materials that contain this nutrients?

Protein helps the growth of the body. Milk, egg, meat, fishes, pulses and fruits contain plenty of proteins

2. How does protein differ from carbohydrates?

Proteins are highly complex organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some of the proteins also contain elements such as sulphur iron, phosphorous etc. Carbohydrates are the compounds made up of three elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

3. What are energy giving food materials?

Carbohydrates and fats are energy giving food materials.

4. What are the functions of Vitamins?

 Vitamins regulate the bodily activeties and protect the body.

5. What are protective nutrients? Why is it called so?

Vitamins and minerals are known as protective nutrients. They are necessary for normal growth, good health, immunity, good vision and for life to be maintained Though they are required only in very minule quantities their presence is essential in our diet. So they are known as protective nutrients.

6. We should include green vegetables and leafy vegetables in our daily food. Why?

It is from the green vegetables and leafy vegetables that we get the necessary vitamins and minerals. So we must include them in our daily food.

7. Egg and milk should be included in the diet of children. Why?

Milk and egg contain all the necessary nutrients for proper growth and health. So the food of children should contain these food items.

8. Which are the food materials that constain abundant of protein?

Milk, egg, meat, fish and pulses contain large quantities of protein.

9. Which are the food materials we consume to avoid the deficiency of vitamin C?

Fruits and vegetables are the source of vitamin C. The food material that contain vitamin C are lemon gooseberry, moringa leaves, bitter gourd, jackfruit, guava, pineapple etc.

10. Why should we include food containing fibres in our diet?

The fibres contained in the food makes the movement of food along the alimentary canal easier.

11. What are the ill effects of excessive consumption of protein containing food?

Excessive consumption of protein food will result in the formation of uric acid,which in turn causes a disease called gout.

 12. What is Kwashiorkor?

Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disease. Symptoms of this disease are retarded growth, inflammation in ankles and feet, anaemic face, decolourised thin hair and protruded belly.

13. Make a table showing food which contains fibres.

Salad, vegetables, half crushed wheat, amaranthus, moringa leaves, mango, lady’s finger, tapioca, drumstick, fruits like orange, mango, banana etc. contain fibres

14. Even though fats provide twice as much energy as that provided by the same amount of the carbohydrate, patients are given glucose to recover their strength quickly because.

Glucose gives instant energy.

15. Look at the two types of dietary habits given below. Which is better? Why?

a. Meat, nutritious products, milk, rice.

b. Aviyal, jack fruit, fish, sambar, rice.

The second combination is more nutritious. The first type of diet contains more fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The second type contains less fat. Moreover carbohydrate, protein, vitamins and minerals are present in the required amount to make it a balanced diet.

16. Egg and meat should not be included in the diet of a patient affected with liver disease. Why?

Egg and meat are rich in protein. The excess amino acids undergo breakdown process in the liver. When the functioning of the liver is impaired due to diseases this is not possible. Therefore patients with diseases are advised not to include egg and meat in their diet

17. Take three test – tubes, pour glucose solution in the first test tube, sugar solution in the second and starch solution in the third test tube. Add two drops of iodine solution to each test tube. What will be the change that happen in each test tube?

When iodine is added to the test-tube containing starch solution, deep blue colour is observed. This confirms the presence of starch in the given test tube. The test tube containing sugar solution and glucose solution shows no change in colour since iodine test is conducted to test the presence of starch only.

 18. Given below is a list of food items eaten by two persons. Analyse the table and give answers to the questions given.

A Rice, Tapioca, Fish, Moringa leaves curry, rice juice

 B Appam, Mutton curry, Icecream, Soft drinks

a. The nutrients obtained by A and B after digestion differs. Explain.

Digestion is faster in A as it is a more balanced diet. But B contains more fat in

the diet.

 b. Which of the two is cheaper and has more nutritive value? Which combination keeps a person healthy?

The food taken by B is costly. Soft drinks and ice cream contains many chemicals. This will affect the health of the person.

The food taken by Ais cheaper and more nutritious. This type of food is good for health.

 19. Two unlabelled bottles are kept, onecontaining vitamin A and the other vitamin C syrup. How will you differentiate them? Suggest an experiment for the same?

Take two test tubes. To one add a little of the syrup in the first bottle. Pour 5ml of water into it. Similarly take a little of the syrup from the second bottle and add water to it. The test tube containing vitamin C dissolves in water easily. This will confirm vitamin C syrup. Vitamin A syrup will dissolve in fat only.

20. Children who take broiler (chicken) regularly may develop obesity and such problems. What are the other harmfull effects you have noticed? Can you in fer the reason?

 All types of meat foods contain large amounts of fats and oils. Due to the over use of meat foods like chicken etc. obe. sity, blood pressure, cholesterol etc. are produced. Due to the increase of cholesterol, fatal disease like heart attack may occur.

21. From where does amoeba get the digestive enzyme?

The enzyme present in the secretion produced by lysosome digests the food.

22. Name the water soluble vitamins.

Vitamin B-complex, Vitamin C, vitamin H.

23. Rice, tapioca and sweet potato can be eaten raw

a) But one cannot eat them raw in plenty. Why?

b) If cooked they can be eaten in plenty. Why?

(a) In rice, tapioca, and sweet potato carbohydrate is present in the cell walls. So if we chew them, they will not come completely in contact with the digestive enzymes and digestion will not be complete.

(b) But on cooking; cell wall becomes softer and water enters the cell wall and makes changes so that digestive enzymes can act on the carbohydrates in the necessary way.

 24. Which are the glandular cells in the small intestine?

Duodenum consists of Brunners glands which secretes mucous. Small intestine also contains crypts of Lieberkuhn which has mucous goblet cells which secrete mucous and paneth cells which secrete intestinal juice.

25. What are hepatocytes? Write a short note on it.

Liver is made up of specialized cells called hepatocytes. Once hepatocytes are destroyed due to wounds, diseases, etc. new cells are formed through division. All the materials absorbed through the small intestine except fatty acids and glycerol reach directly to the liver. They are either stored in the liver or transformed into other materials according to the needs of the body. Hepatocytes release these substances into the blood stream from the liver, whenever required.

26. How does protein differ from carbohydrates?

Proteins are highly complex organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some of the proteins also contain elements such as sulphur, iron, phosphorous etc. Carbohydrates are the compounds made up of three elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

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